India’s march towards a $5 trillion economy hinges on infrastructure. Much of the discussion has centered on two big questions: (a) is India investing adequately in infrastructure?; and (b) whether our investments are leading to timely completion of projects? The first question has been debated for years and is unlikely to give a conclusive answer, given the dynamic relationship between economic growth and infrastructure demand. In an economy striving to make efficient use of available capital, the second should be given higher priority. Timely completion of infrastructure projects requires regular monitoring and periodic course correction. Such monitoring is a routine process that systematically collects data on specified indicators of the extent of progress. This is a demanding task that has been neglected in the past, as the traditional ‘implementation monitoring’ mainly deals with activities, inputs and immediate outputs.